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Nobel prize winners

Aaron Klug

He was born in Zelva, Lithuania in 1926. Approximately in 1928-1930 the Klug family immigrated to South Africa. The exact date of emigration is not known but the professor himself stated that he was two years old at this time. The future-be scientist grown up in tropical Durban and attended classical higher school there. Then he entered Johanesburg University and studied medicine, chemistry and biochemistry. Since 1949 he became the researcher in Cambridge University, in Great Britain. Later on, he became doctor of science. He received the Nobel Prize because of his research in the field of microbiology in 1982.
In 2005 at central square in small city Zelva, Lithuania the monument was build to commemorate the birth of Aaron Klug.



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Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) polish writer. Milosz was born in Đateiniai, near Këdainiai, Lithuania. According to him he lived in ‘the heart of Lithuania’. All his noble family lived there since the 15th century. His mother Veronika was the member of Kunatai family. His father was an engineer; he used to build bridges in Russia. In 1921 all the family moved to Vilnius where Milosz graduated polish gymnasium of Sigismund Augustus. In 1929-1934 he studied law at Vilnius University. He was engaged in ‘Ţagary’, literature group of students.
The collection of poems under the title ‘Three Winters’ brought him a special place in Polish literature. He considered Lithuania to be a separate unit from Poland.
After the fall of Poland, Milosz moved to Kaunas but when Vilnius was returned to Lithuania, he moved to Warsaw and engaged in anti-Nazi activities. He worked in USA and France as a diplomat of Poland. Nevertheless, he broke his relations with communist regime and stayed in the West. In 1953 his essayist book ‘Zniewolony umysl’ appeared. In 1955 his autobiographical novel ‘Dolina Issy’ was published; and in 1958 the book about Lithuania ‘Rodzinna Europa’ appeared. Since 1960 Milosz taught Slav literature at Berkley University (USA, California). He wrote a number of poems and essays. In 1980 he received the Nobel Prize.
When Lithuania and Poland was free of communism, Milosz visited both countries quite often. At the end of his life he moved to Cracow and died there.
Milosz takes a very similar place of that of Adam Mickiewicz in Polish literature of the 20th century. Milosz called himself ‘the last citizen of the Great Duchy of Lithuania’. Although he wrote only in Polish, he knew the Lithuanian language well enough and, thus he may be considered to be the poet of both countries. Lithuanian nature, traditions and social types takes an important place in his works. His ‘conservative antitotaliarism’ rose from Lithuanian agrarian culture. The same thing influenced his values, respect to nature and its pulse and historical and ethnical identity.

Milosz was interested in Lithuanian literature very much; he wrote about it and translated Kazys Boruta into Polish. He had relations with Pranas Ancevičius. A great influence on him had his relative Oskaras Milađius, who worked in the delegate of Lithuania in Paris. Milosz had close relations with Juozas Keliuočius in Kaunas and he cooperated with him in his magazine ‘Naujoji Romuva’. He also hold relations with Lithuanian fellowship ‘Santara-Đviesa’ in that time when he was emigrated from Lithuania. He also cooperated in the magazine ‘Matmenys’. In 1955 his poetry collection appeared and it was translated into Lithuanian by Juozas Këkđtas. Lithuania and its tragic faith were mentioned in his ‘Subdued mind'(Pavergtas Protas’) and in his speech during the Nobel Prize awards. He became the honour citizen of Lithuania and honour doctor at Vytautas Magnus University. He visited his motherland and Vilnius several times. A great part of his works was translated into the Lithuanian language after 1991. Some of the poems were first published in Lithuanian and only then into Polish.

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Thomas Mann (1875-1955) is a German writer who received the Nobel prize in 1929. In the same year, in his words, bored with the rather trivial resort town Rauschen (Swetlogorsk), where he spent his first vacation at the Baltic sea with his family, he decided to visit the Curonian Spit in Lithuania.

On August 24th T.Mann arrived at the Nida (Lithuania) harbour. During the several days of his stay he became so enchanted by the landscape of the dunes, forest, the sea and the idyllic lagoon beach that he decided to build a summerhouse there. He spent three summers in Nida (1930-1932) writing the novel "Joseph and his brothers"

The exhibition displayed in Mann's former summerhouse familiarises the visitors with the personality of the Nobel prize winner, glimpses of his life in Nida and links with Lithuania. It also houses the public institution "Thomas Mann cultural centre" that organises various events: the annual Thomas Mann festival, conferences and seminars.

Neringa-Nida (Lithuania). T.Mann's memorial museum.



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Nadine Gordimer was born in Springs, near Johanesburg, South Africa in 1923, May 20. When she graduated from the school which was located in women nunnery, she continued her studies at Vitvatersrand University. Although she began to write very early (at ten years old), the debut of her writing is considered to be her novella ‘Face to face’ (1949). In her novels about South Africa, Gordimer looks for the roots of evil and for solution of racial problems. Americal critics suggested that if you want to understand a new and independent Africa you had to read Gordimer’s novel ‘Respectable guest’ (1970). Moreover, if you want to feel what white intelligences feel in Africa you have to read the stories of the collection ‘Fellow travellers of Livingstone(1971). She was awarded with various prizes.
Her father emigrated to South Africa from Lithuania-Latvia frontier. The writer mentioned the name of Lithuania in some of her writings. She spoke about a boy, whose ancestor came to Transvaal from Lithuania.

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